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Full text of "National Register Nominations for Chicago"

NPS Form 10-900 
(Rev. 10-90) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 
REGISTRATION FORM 




OMBNo. 1024-0018 

1474 
SENT TO D.C. 



H-e-^esir 



This form is for use in nominating or requesting determinations for individual properties and districts. See 
instructions in How to Complete the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (National Register 
Bulletin 16A). Complete each item by marking "x" in the appropriate box or by entering the information 
requested. If any item does not apply to the property being documented, enter "N/A" for "not applicable." For 
functions, architectural classification, materials, and areas of significance, enter only categories and 
subcategories from the instructions. Place additional entries and narrative items on continuation sheets (NPS 
Form 10-900a). Use a typewriter, word processor, or computer, to complete all items. 

1. Name of Property 

historic name International Tailoring Company Building 

other names/site number 



2. Location 



street & number 
city or town 
state Illinois 



847 West Jackson Boulevard 
Chicago 

code IL county Cook 



Not for publication 
_vicinity 



code 031 zip code 60607 



3. State/Federal Agency Certification 



As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, I hereby certify that this )c 

nomination request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National 

Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the 

property X meets does not meet the National Register Criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant 

nationally statewide X locally. ( See continuation sheet for additional comments.) 



Signature of certifying official 

Illinois Historic Preservation Agency 

State or Federal agency and bureau 



Date 



In my opinion, the property meets does not meet the National Register criteria. ( 

continuation sheet for additional comments.) 



See 



Signature of commenting or other official 



Date 



State or Federal agency and bureau 



American Indian Tribe 



Name of Property International Tailoring Company Cook County, Illinois 

4. National Park Service Certification 

I, hereby certify that this property is: Signature of the Keeper Date of Action 

entered in the National Register 

See continuation sheet. 

determined eligible for the 

National Register 

See continuation sheet. 

determined not eligible for the 

National Register 



removed from the National Register 
other (explain): 



S. Classification 



Ownership of Property 
(Check as many boxes as apply) 
X private 

public-local 

public-State 

public-Federal 

Category of Property 

(Check only one box) 

X building(s) 

district 

site 

structure 

object 

Number of Resources within Property 

(Do not include previously listed resources in the count) 

Contributing Noncontributing 

1 buildings 

sites 

structures 

objects 

_1 Total 

Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register 

Name of related multiple property listing (Enter "N/A" if property is not part of a multiple property listing.) 



Name of Property International Tailoring Company Cook County, Illinois 

6. Function or Use 

Historic Functions (Enter categories from instructions) 
INDUSTRY / manufacturing facility 

Current Functions (Enter categories from instructions) 

Primarily VACANT, partially COMMERCE / business / offices 

7. Description 

Architectural Classification 
(Enter categories from instructions) 

LATE 19 ,h and 20 th CENTURY / Commercial Style / Italian Renaissance Revival 

Materials (Enter categories from instructions) 
Foundation reinforced concrete 
Roof reinforced concrete and bitumen 
Walls brick and terra cotta 
other 



Narrative Description (Describe the historic and current condition of the property on one or more continuation 
sheets.) 



Name of Property International Tailoring Company Cook County, Illinois 

8. Statement of Significance 

Applicable National Register Criteria (Mark "x" in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for 
National Register listing) 

X A Property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns 
of our history. 

B Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past. 

X C Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or 
represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and 
distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction. 

D Property has yielded, or is likely to yield information important in prehistory or history. 

Criteria Considerations (Mark "X" in all the boxes that apply.) 

A owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes. 

B removed from its original location. 

C a birthplace or a grave. 

D a cemetery. 

E a reconstructed building, object, or structure. 

F a commemorative property. 

G less than 50 years of age or achieved significance within the past 50 years. 

Areas of Significance (Enter categories from instructions) 

Industry and Social History 

Period of Significance 1916-1956 

Significant Dates 1916, 1922, 1925 

Significant Person (Complete if Criterion B is marked above) 

Cultural Affiliation 

Architect/Builder Mundie & Jensen 

Narrative Statement of Significance (Explain the significance of the property on one or more continuation 
sheets.) 



Name of Property International Tailoring Building County and State Cook County, Illinois 

9. Major Bibliographical References 

(Cite the books, articles, and other sources used in preparing this form on one or more continuation sheets.) 
See Continuation Sheet for bibliography 
Previous documentation on file (NPS) 

preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested. 

previously listed in the National Register 

previously determined eligible by the National Register 

designated a National Historic Landmark 

recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey # 

recorded by Historic American Engineering Record # 

Primary Location of Additional Data 

State Historic Preservation Office 

Other State agency 

Federal agency 

Local government 

X University 
__ Other 

Name of repository University of Virginia 



10. Geographical Data 



Acreage of Property .67 

UTM References (Place additional UTM references on a continuation sheet) 

Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing 
1 16 446126 4636192 3 

2 4 

See continuation sheet. 

Verbal Boundary Description 

(Describe the boundaries of the property on a continuation sheet.) 

Boundary Justification 

(Explain why the boundaries were selected on a continuation sheet.) 



Name of Property International Tailoring Building Cook County, Illin ois 

11. Form Prepared By 

name/title Daniel Bluestone 

organization Director, Historic Preservation Program, University of Virginia date October, 2007 

street & number Box 400122 telephone 972-868-9197 

city or town Charlottesville state Virginia zip code 22904 

Additional Documentation 



Submit the following items with the completed form: 
Continuation Sheets 

Maps 

A USGS map (7.5 or 15 minute series) indicating the property's location. 

A sketch map for historic districts and properties having large acreage or numerous resources. 

Photographs 

Representative black and white photographs of the property. 

Additional items (Check with the SHPO or FPO for any additional items) 

Property Owner 

(Complete this item at the request of the SHPO or FPO.) 
name Place Properties 

street & number 5215 N. O'Connor Boulevard telephone 972-868-9197 

city or town Irving state Texas zip code 75039 



Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National 
Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, 
and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the 
National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.). 

Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 18.1 hours per 
response including the time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and 
reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Chief, 
Administrative Services Division, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127; and 
the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reductions Project (1024-0018), Washington, DC 20503. 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

. Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _7_ Page X 



Section 7: Description 

Summary Paragraph 

Located on the southeast comer of West Jackson Boulevard and South Peoria Street in Chicago, Illinois, 
the International Tailoring Company building is a ten-story industrial loft constructed in 1915-1916 as the office 
and factory of a leading men's clothing manufacturer. The building occupies a level urban site a half-mile west 
of the downtown Loop. Mundie & Jensen, architects, designed the building in a modest Renaissance revival 
commercial style; they clad the building with light colored face brick, common brick, terracotta, granite, and 
glass. Steel columns and girders, fireproofed with concrete, support the building's reinforced concrete floors 
and roof. Mundie & Jensen also designed the ten-story south addition to the building in 1922; this addition 
harmonizes with but does not copy the form and style of the original building. With the completion of the south 
addition the building extended 117 feet along Jackson Boulevard and 227 feet along Peoria Street. Above the 
first floor level, the floor plan and the building mass take the form of a shallow U; the building has a substantial 
exterior light court, which faces east onto an alley that runs north-south through the middle of the block 
bounded by Jackson Boulevard, Van Buren, Green, and Peoria streets. The east elevations are enclosed in 
common brick, while the north, south, and west elevations are enclosed in light colored face brick and white 
terra cotta, with gray granite enclosing the bases of the building's exterior piers. A clock tower, twenty-one feet 
square and seventy-five feet high, rises from the center point of the building's north elevation and encloses a 
15,000-gallon water tank. Built of brick and terra cotta, the tower is currently entirely enclosed in metal siding, 
a cheap, short-term solution taken in the 1980s to address the problem of pieces of terra cotta falling from the 
roof to the sidewalk below. A planned building restoration will remove the metal siding from the tower. 
Architecturally, the building retains its historic industrial character and a substantial degree of its original 
architectural integrity. 

Key architectural features of the International Tailoring Company building demonstrate its designers' 
thoroughgoing concern with natural light and ventilation. The light colored face brick of the main elevations, 
the white terra cotta trim, the substantial percentage of each elevation given over to window openings, and the 
large exterior light court exemplify both a practical and symbolic interest in light and air. Despite the size of 
the building, a tailor would never work further than thirty feet from one of the large exterior windows that 
flooded the twelve-foot high production rooms with natural light. This particular element of the design helps 
underscore the reforms adopted by the International Tailoring Company in both labor conditions and 
architecture. The building contributed to a major transition in Chicago's clothing industry, as production 
moved from small-scale, dimly lit, and poorly ventilated sweatshops to large factories, where a premium was 
placed upon good light and air and safer working conditions. 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

~ Cook County, Illinois 

Section number J_ Page J- 



The building's main north elevation, facing Jackson Boulevard, is composed using the tripartite division of 
base-shaft-capital common in many high-rise Chicago buildings of the late-nineteenth and early twentieth 
century. Compositionally, two stories are gathered into a base. This is topped by a single-story entresol in 
which each structural bay is divided in half by a white terra cotta false pier extending vertically between the 
white terra cotta and brick spandrels that frame the third floor. The entresol serves as a transitional story to the 
shaft, which comprises the building's visually unified mid-section of six stories, floors four through nine. The 
capital is composed separately as a single, top story. The tower springs from the two central bays of the 
building. It has a single story base on the roof with a heavy projecting corbel course. This base is twice as wide 
as the main shaft of the tower. Two thirds of the tower's elevation is made up of a single section with a pair 
arched windows in each tower face. The top third of the tower is given over to the clock face. A balustrade 
with projecting crests topped the tower in the original design. 

The main elevation is composed around six structural bays. The main entrance occupies the easternmost 
bay. This entrance is through a monumental two-story high terra cotta arch with a projecting crown molding. 
Structurally, the upper part of the entrance arch is actually a functioning part of the second floor, not part of the 
lobby space. The entrance bay, like all of the other structural bays in the main elevation, is framed by 
projecting brick piers that run uninterrupted from their granite bases to the top of the building. The entrance 
structural bay is visually divided vertically into two sections by a minor continuous false terra cotta pier that 
extends from the cornice above the second floor all the way to the roof; this visually continuous pier is broken 
only by projecting spandrels at the third and the tenth floors. In all of the floors in the shaft/middle section of 
the building, the false pier projects in front of the green terra cotta spandrel add to the building's overall sense 
of verticality. In the end bays, the false piers also supported heraldic crests with the company's "ITC" 
monogram. With square openings for windows on floors three through nine, the building is topped with a 
continuous line of twelve arched windows. Even though there is no difference structurally between the entrance 
bay and the other bays in the building, the continuous false pier in the entrance bay and the widened brick pier 
at the corner give the facade a visual sense of greater structural solidity at the corner. The westernmost bay of 
the main elevation is identical to the entrance bay, save for the fact that there is no entrance arch in the lower 
two floors; instead, a green terra cotta spandrel is simply recessed behind the plane established by the brick 
piers. 

The two bays adjacent to the end bays are visually the most open. In the shaft section of the building 
there is no false pier between the structural piers. The green terra cotta spandrels are recessed behind the front 
plane of the building and the projecting brick piers. In the building's middle two bays, the false piers of the end 
bays are reintroduced to lend visual support to the tower that rises above this section of the building. In the five 
bays west of the entrance bay, the first and second stories were gathered visually into a colossal order arcade, 
established by projecting structural piers and recessed green terra cotta spandrels. The false piers in the 
entresol, in the arcaded top story, and in four of the six bays in the mid-section of the building are entirely 
omitted in the lower two stories, which opens this section of the elevation entirely to windows. The large 
display-type windows on the first story rise above a low, enclosed sill. 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 
Section number "J_ Page ;3_ 



On the main elevation, a previous owner replaced all of the original widows except those in the tower. 
Double hung green metal sash windows fill all of the original window openings. The dominant aesthetic of the 
building's main elevations is established by the spatial relationship between the solids of the light brick and 
white terra cotta piers and spandrels and the voids established by the green terra cotta spandrels and windows. 
This void and solid pattern helped give the building its verticality and its light and airy character. The original 
windows, an extremely light grid of metal muntins and glass, maximized light to the interior and were intended 
to visually recede in the composition of the facade. Like the original windows, the replacement windows are 
recessed from the front plane of the building and continue to play the muted secondary roll that the original 
windows played in the design. The replacement windows do not compromise the architectural integrity of the 
building. The failure of the terra cotta crests with the "ITC" monogram that projected above the cornice coping 
at the corners of the elevations led a previous owner to remove this feature of the cornice. The removal of these 
modest ornamental projections at the corners has not compromised the overall integrity of the building, which 
remains quite high. The historic form and character of the International Tailoring Building remains quite 
apparent today. 

Mundie & Jensen designed the west Peoria Street elevation of the original 1915-1916 building very 
much along the same lines as the main elevation. As in the main elevation, there were six structural bays. The 
terminal bays at the north and south ends of the Peoria Street elevation were nearly identical to the west bay of 
the main elevation. The only notable change was that a fire escape projected from the south terminal bay, and a 
single door took the place of a single window at the south edge of the elevation. The four structural bays 
between the end bays were designed along lines similar to bays that stood adjacent to the terminal bays in the 
main Jefferson elevation; these four bays received no false piers to divide the window openings, except in the 
entresol third floor and the arcaded top floor. The difference in the treatment of the central bays of the Jackson 
and the Peoria elevations relates to the fact that the Peoria bays did not require the compositional thickening 
given by adding piers; they did not have the compositional burden of needing to visually support a tower rising 
above the roofline. 

With the exception of the northernmost bay of the Peoria Street elevation, the first story window 
openings of the original building have been bricked up. Building renovation plans anticipate the reopening of 
window bays along Peoria Street. The same replacement windows found in the main elevation are also found in 
the Peoria Street elevation. These replacement windows do not compromise the architectural integrity of the 
elevation. 

Above the first floor, the original 1915-1916 building took the shape of a truncataed and backwards L. 
The east facing exterior light court actually took up nearly a quarter of the entire plan of the building. The 
secondary and tertiary elevations, facing south and west, had an entirely different character from the Jackson 
Boulevard and Peoria Street elevations. They were all constructed of common brick. The windows had simple 
terra cotta sills and lintels, and the roof parapet was topped with simple terra cotta caps. Common brick 
projecting piers rose continuously from the bottom to the top of the elevation. The southernmost elevation was 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

j. Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _2_ Page _£_ 



built as a simple common brick party wall, with only a single window. The 1922 addition was built against this 
earlier elevation and the wall is no longer visible from the exterior. The east elevation of the light court in the 
1915-1916 section of the building consists of three structural bays with a group of three double hung windows 
on each floor, in each bay. All the windows in light court's two northern bays have been replaced with simple 
double hung windows. The three windows in the southernmost bay of the light court still have the original 
double hung windows with a pane configuration of three over three with the metal muntins dividing the six 
lights in each window vertically. The north elevation of the light court in the 1915-1916 section has three 
structural bays, separated by projecting common brick piers rising from the bottom to the top of the building. 
The eastern bay has two windows on each floor with the three-over-three pane configuration. The adjacent bay 
to the west has on each floor a single window with a three-over-three pane configuration and a single door 
giving access to the metal exterior fire escape. The westernmost bay of the north elevation of the light court has 
a group of three double hung windows. The windows in the two eastern bays are original. The windows in the 
westernmost bay are the same as the replacement double hung windows with green metal sashes found in other 
sections of the building. The east half of the light court in the 1915-1916 section of the building had a one-story 
workroom with six sawtooth skylights providing natural light. This space is still intact, but the skylights have 
been covered in roofing material. A raised reinforced concrete loading dock extends east towards the alley from 
this one story workroom. 

The easternmost common brick elevation of the 1915-1916 building rises directly from the sixteen-foot 
wide alley that runs north and south past the building. This elevation is made up of three structural bays. The 
northernmost bay has a pair of double hung windows with a three-over-three bay configuration. Most of the 
original windows are still in place. The next bay to the south was designed to have a pair of double hung 
windows. These windows, which illuminated the original passenger elevator shafts, have since been bricked 
up. The southernmost bay has a single double-hung window with a three-over-three pane configuration on each 
floor that illuminates the interior staircase in the original section of the building. On the roof of this section of 
the building, the southern two bays have a one story mechanical penthouse for the elevator machinery that 
extends the exterior wall one story higher. In the mechanical penthouse one bay has a pair of double hung 
windows, and the bay with the staircase has a single window rising above the windows below. These elevations 
were designed to be secondary utilitarian elevations and they maintain that character today. 

Mundie & Jensen designed the 1922 addition to the International Tailoring Company to harmonize in 
form, scale, and function with the original building. They made some slight variations in the design. The main 
Peoria Street elevation is divided into five structural bays. The main entrance into the addition is through a 
formal two-story rectangular opening, which contrasts with the arched opening of the Jackson Boulevard 
elevation. In the piers flanking the entrance the architects designed shallow niches for the polychrome bas relief 
terra cotta figures of male tailors dressed in colonial garb sitting crossed legged and sewing. The figures nicely 
capture the function of the building while, perhaps, shifting the attention of passersby away from the largely 
immigrant and increasingly female workforce of Chicago's 1920s clothing industry. The spandrel between the 
first and the second floor in the entrance bay is recessed, providing a clear mark of the entrance while not 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 
Section number _!2_ Page 5 



intruding on the monumentality of the two-story frame for the entrance. Unlike the Jackson elevation, the 
spandrels between the first and second floor in the bays adjacent to the entrance are all brought flush with the 
piers and are enclosed in light colored terra cotta block. The spandrel above the second floor widows is capped 
by a projecting cornice course that runs continuously across the entire elevation. 

The projecting brick piers, faced in buff colored brick, on the middle section of the elevation of the 1922 
addition all visually spring from projecting cornice over the second floor, rather than continuing to the ground 
as they do on the main elevation. There is no entresol on the addition and the third floor is composed as part of 
the shaft or mid section of the building. The brick courses and wall of the entrance bay project slightly forward 
of the other three middle bays of the elevation. In the entrance bay, a false rounded terra cotta pier runs from 
the top of the second floor all the way to the tenth floor, where it forms the mullion between the two arched 
window openings at the top of the bay's elevation. In end bays the spandrels are covered in white terra cotta 
panels with a projecting circle in the middle of each spandrel panel. Although it lacks an entrance, the 
southernmost terminal bay of the Peoria Street elevation is treated in the same manner as the entrance bay, in 
the area above the second floor. In the tall arches of the terminal bays and in the tenth floor window arches, the 
brickwork steps back in three planes to visually deepen the arch. In the middle three bays, piers run 
uninterrupted from the cornice above the second floor to the projecting lintel above the ninth floor. White terra 
cotta encloses the bottom and the top of these piers, forming simple bases and capitals. The brick spandrels 
have terra cotta sills and lintels and are recessed from the front plane of the elevation. They lie behind the piers. 
On each of the upper floors the middle three bays have three double hung windows grouped together. 

The south elevation of the 1922 addition is six bays wide and follows the same pattern as the Peoria 
Street elevation. The only modifications are concessions to the secondary, non-street nature of this elevation. 
The first two floors of the westernmost bay, adjacent to Peoria Street, are enclosed in white terra cotta; 
however, the five bays to the east are feced in buff colored face brick with white terra cotta sills and lintels at 
the window openings. Like the terminal bays in the 1922 addition of Peoria Street, the westernmost bay of the 
southern elevation has the rounded, engaged terra cotta column rising from the top of the second floor to the top 
floor. A three-story section of this column is missing. The spandrels in this bay are terra cotta with the raised 
circular pattern. The easternmost bay, adjacent to the alley, has brick spandrels and a brick pier, as opposed to 
the terra cotta spandrels and columns found in the of the westernmost bay adjacent to Peoria Street. One of the 
middle bays on the south elevation has an exterior metal fire escape. A later truck loading dock and a roofed 
area project south from the section of the south elevation adjacent to the alley. 

Like the original building, the east elevation of the 1922 addition is enclosed in common brick with 
windows and their terra cotta sills and lintels dominating the openings in the structural grid. The 1922 addition 
provided a less generous light court. Rather than having the single story workroom at the east side of the light 
court, the addition enclosed this space on every floor. This made the 1922 exterior light court essentially two 
structural bays by two structural bays, rather than the three bay by three bay court of the original building. The 
fenestration pattern of the three bays on the southern end of the 1922 addition's east elevation has slight 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 
Section number _7_ Page C 



variations from one bay to the next. The southernmost bay has two grouped windows and a wide brick pier at 
the corner. The middle bay has two windows and a door to the exterior fire escape. The third bay groups three 
windows together. The majority of the windows are replacements with green metal sashes and triple lights, 
divided horizontally. The first and the second floor have an older grid of metal sash windows; each window is 
three panes wide by four panes high. The north elevation of the light court is two structural bays wide, with 
groups of three double-hung windows in each bay. Two bays make up the east elevation of the light court. The 
south bay has three grouped double-hung windows. The adjacent bay has a single, small, double-hung window 
with a three-over-three pane configuration, divided vertically with thin metal muntins. This two-bay section of 
the east elevation also has a one-story two-bay wide elevator machinery penthouse on the roof with double- 
hung windows facing east. The east elevation was designed as a secondary utilitarian elevation, harmonizing 
with the east elevation of the original building, and it maintains that character today. 

The interior of the International Tailoring Company building does not have any particularly distinctive 
architectural features. The building interior is utilitarian—designed to accommodate factory production. The 
sixteen-foot high ceilings in the first story accommodated the open plan of the company offices. The mosaic 
tile of the original lobby floors has been replaced by terrazzo. Marble wainscot still lines the lobby walls. In 
the original 1915-1916 building, two passenger elevators, two freight elevators, and a stair provided vertical 
circulation. A single passenger elevator, two freight elevators, and a stair provided circulation in the addition. 
Both sections of the building had two exterior fire escapes included in the original design. In both the original 
building and in the 1922 addition, Mundie & Jensen concentrated the vertical circulation cores and the stacks of 
men's and women's toilets together on the light court, reserving the better-lit sections of the building that 
overlooked the streets for the expansive clothing manufacturing work rooms. The significant and impressive 
quality of the interior remains it high ceilings and large windows, which represent the distance between the 
Chicago garment industry's early dark and cramped sweatshops and light and airy modern factory buildings. 
The ceiling heights and window openings capture the crux of the interior design intention. International 
Tailoring Company tailors worked in interiors flooded with natural light. Despite the partitioning of many of 
the floors into smaller offices, the integrity of the well-illuminated interior, with its high ceilings and expansive 
windows persists. 

What is characteristic of the interior integrity also pervades the exterior. The solid-void relationship of 
the original design, discussed above, emphasized the light vertical lines in the composition of the building. The 
large east light court revealed the concern with natural light, represented symbolically by the light colored face 
brick on the main elevations and in the vertical compositional lines of the building. This light airy character is 
clearly apparent despite the replacement of original windows by a previous owner. The bricking in of some 
window openings at the first floor level of the secondary elevation in a ten-story building does not mask the 
overall design intention or character. Moreover, current restoration plans call for the reopening of these first 
windows. Similarly, plans are underway for removing the cladding of the tower and repairing the terra cotta 
pieces that were failing when the tower was enclosed. The essential historic character, scale, and integrity of 
this industrial building are clearly evident in its current form. 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 
Section number _&_ Page ~7 



Section 8: Significance 

Summary Paragraph 

Designed by architects Mundie & Jensen and constructed in 1915-1916, with a substantial addition 
completed in 1922, Chicago's International Tailoring Company building possesses historic significance 
corresponding to National Register of Historic Places criteria A and C. The building is associated with the 
broad pattern of Chicago history in the area of both industry and social history. In the late nineteenth and early 
twentieth century, clothing manufacture grew to be one of Chicago's leading industries, employing more people 
than any other single industry. In 1909 clothing manufacture gave employment to 45,036 people, over 12% of 
Chicago's industrial workforce 

1 The industry employed more people than the foundry and iron and steel industries, more people than the 
slaughtering and meat packing industry, and more than the printing and publishing business. Clothing 
manufacture was Chicago's largest single employer, and yet the industry was split between two basic 
organizational forms. On the one hand, hundreds of small sweatshops employed many immigrant laborers in 
harsh economic and physical conditions; on the other hand, a growing number of modern factories competed 
with sweatshops by using more advanced technologies and speeding up clothing production through the minute 
subdivision of clothing production into discrete tasks, essentially deskilling the tailors' and seamstresses' craft. 2 
The sweatshop was the object of major reform campaigns in the 1890s that pushed clothing manufacture 
increasingly in the direction of factory production. Part of the anti-sweatshop reform vision aimed to move 
clothing workers away from dispersed, small scale, shifting employment sites to larger factories where workers 
stood a better chance of organizing for the purpose of collective bargaining. The International Tailoring 
Company building exemplifies the transition in Chicago from sweatshop to unionized factory labor in clothes 
production. The size of the factory made it a significant site of labor disputes and strikes by newly unionized 
clothing workers. The reformers' success in moving production towards factories and the rise of clothing 
worker unions highlights the criterion A local significance of the building in the areas of industry and social 
history; the industry and social history significance of the International Tailoring Company building encompass 
important developments in Chicago labor history. The design and architecture of the International Tailoring 
Company building embody the distinctive characteristics of a type and period of construction-the modern 
clothing factory. Mundie & Jensen's design for the building also reflects the significant effort on the part of 
Chicago architects in the early twentieth century to embellish Chicago's factories, warehouses, and loft 
buildings as part of the broader City Beautiful Movement. In relation to its architecture, the International 
Tailoring Company building possesses criterion C local significance. The period of significance, 1916-1956 
reflects the general fifty-year threshold for National Register significance. 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 



Section number _]o_ Page o 



Chicago Clothing Industry: From Sweatshop to Factory 

In 1 9 1 5- 1 9 16, when the International Tailoring Company built its ten-story building on Jackson 
Boulevard, it joined a handful of other businesses that since the 1890s had built and operated massive Chicago 
clothing factories. The clothing industry had expanded dramatically after the Chicago fire of 1871 and by 1900 
it exceeded all other Chicago industries in the number of workers employed, accounting for 1 1 % of industrial 
employment. The city had also captured 15% of the national market for men's clothing production, exceeded 
only by New York City. Chicago specialized in the expanding lines of ready-made men's clothing purchased 
by both working-class and middle-class men. Chicago's advantages in transportation and mail order 
distribution boosted the fortunes of the clothing industry. As Chicago engaged in national competition in the 
clothing industry, it relied on an extensive system of sweatshops. Clothing manufacture was contracted out to 
small shops that employed immigrant labor, including many women and children, who worked for long hours in 
cramped and unsanitary conditions for some of the lowest wages paid for industrial work in Chicago. 

The plight of sweatshop clothing workers attracted the attention of Chicago reformers in the 1890s. 
Reformers associated with Hull House, the West Side settlement house, helped lead the anti-sweatshop 
campaign in Chicago and Illinois. In 1895 Jane Addams wrote that, "Hull-House is situated in the midst of the 
sweaters' district of Chicago. . . . The residents have lived for five years in a neighborhood largely given over 
to the sewing trades, which is an industry totally disorganized. Having observed the workers in this trade as 
compared to those in organized trades, they have gradually discovered that lack of organization in a trade tends 
to the industrial helplessness of the workers in that trade. ... No trades are so overcrowded as the sewing 
trades; for the needle has ever been the refuge of the unskilled woman." 3 Addams and her colleagues, 
particularly Florence Kelley, realized that the small and dispersed system of sweatshops made labor union 
organizing of workers particularly difficult. With that in mind they crusaded to end sweatshop production as a 
means to force relocation of clothing production into factories that could be more easily organized. In 1893, 
reformers succeeded in having the Illinois Legislature pass an anti-sweatshop bill. The law forbade the 
employment of children under the age of 14 and the employment of non-family members in home production; it 
also included provisions to enforce an eight-hour day for women and girls. Governor John Peter Altgeld, who 
served as Illinois's governor between 1893 and 1897, appointed Hull House's Florence Kelley to the position of 
factory inspector for the State of Illinois, where she helped enforce child labor, workplace safety, and anti- 
sweatshop laws. 4 Enforcement of the laws proved difficult, however, and in 1899 the Chicago Tribune still 
noted a flourishing sweatshop system. The newspaper documented the system in an article headlined, 
"SEARCHLIGHT ON THE SWEATSHOPS OF CHICAGO. Where 17,000 Garment Workers, Mostly 
Women And Children, Toil In Hot, Small Rooms For The Pitiful Wages That Keep Together Their Relics Of 
Body And Soul — Sanitary Conditions Investigated— Menace To Public Health Among The Home-Finishers — 
Statistics Of State Inspections — Scenes In The Various Colonies." 5 Reformers began to assume that their best 
hope for substantial progress would come only by banning tenement production of clothing altogether. 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 
Section number _JL Page " 



Reform pressure slowly moved production out of sweatshops and into factories, setting the stage for the 
massive scale of work done in the International Tailoring Company building. Interestingly, the reform affected 
the consumer side of the clothing business as well as the production side. Florence Kelley and other reformers 
tried to encourage consumers to demand the union label when buying their clothes. 6 They also were more than 
willing to raise the specter that clothing coming from unsanitary sweatshops could spread vermin and serious 
infectious diseases to consumers and their households. Department stores began reassuring customers about the 
conditions in which their clothing was produced. A 1902 Mandel Brothers department store advertisement 
declared, "There's not a sweatshop garment in our entire assortment, nothing but the workmanship of well paid, 
contented, clever needlewomen plying their craft amid cheerful, healthful, surroundings." 7 In 1903 Schlesinger 
& Mayer insisted, "There's not a garment shown in our great assortments but was made under the strictest 
sanitary conditions — no sweatshop products." 8 In 1919 Sell Brothers declared that their suits were made "by 
experienced tailors, in sanitary, daylight workrooms — not sweatshops." 9 Besides the pressure from reformers 
and consumers, economic changes in the clothing manufacturing business accelerated the move towards factory 
production in the early twentieth century. With that transition came a rise of union organization that Hull 
House reformers and others saw as the only hope for improving the economic position of clothing workers. 

Jacob L. Reiss and the International Tailoring Company 

Established in 1896, the International Tailoring Company and its founder and president Jacob L. Reiss 
(1874-1955) rode the wave of clothing factory production from humble origins to great prosperity. Reiss 
incorporated the International Tailoring Company with $5,000 in capital, raised in part through investment from 
E. E. Barrett and William T. Hapeman, two Chicago lawyers. I0 By the 1920s Reiss's company had sales of 
$2,000,000 per year and employed 1,300 people in its Chicago and New York plants. Jacob L. Reiss was born 
in Wisconsin in 1874 to parents who had immigrated to the United States from Prussia and settled in Wisconsin 
by the mid-1 860s. In 1 880 the family lived in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, where Jacob's father Clemens Reiss 
worked as a produce dealer supporting his family, which in 1880 included his wife Anna and eight children 
aged 3-15." Jacob Reiss moved to Chicago in the 1890s and at the age of 21 was already a department 
manager, likely supervising tailoring work. After establishing the International Tailoring Company, Reiss may 
have done contract work for larger manufacturers but there is no evidence that he ever engaged in sweatshop 
production in the classic sense of running a small shop crammed into a tenement in a crowded immigrant 
neighborhood. In fact, for its first two decades of business Reiss's company operated in leased space, located in 
modern loft buildings in or immediately adjacent to Chicago's downtown Loop. In 1895, when Reiss was 
employed as a department manager, he worked on the 10* floor of the twelve-story Lee's Building on Fifth 
Avenue in the Loop. Constructed in 1893 of brick and terra cotta, with a steel frame, the building was praised 
in a contemporary guidebook as "absolutely fire-proof and strong enough to resist the heaviest strain. It is the 
best naturally lighted office building in the city, having a wide alley on three sides." 12 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 



Section number _&_ Page [0_ 



Reiss and the International Tailoring Company spent years operating out of the building designed by 
Adler & Sullivan for Martin Ryerson in 1888, located at the corner of Adams and Market streets and later 
known as the Walker Warehouse. In the 1890s and early 1900s in blocks immediately around the Ryerson 
Building, some of the Chicago's largest clothing manufacturers constructed substantial factories that presented 
forms that stood in sharp contrast to the world of the sweatshop. In 1908-1910, Hart, Schaffner & Marx, for 
example, which employed 8,000 clothing workers, constructed a twelve-story, one million dollar building, at 
the northwest corner of Monroe and Franklin streets. Designed by Holabird & Roche, the building plan was 
described as being "not only the highest grade of fireproof construction, but also . . . one of the largest and most 
perfect buildings devoted to the manufacture of clothing in the world. . . . The stories will be higher than in any 
other building in the wholesale or retail district, the first floor being fifteen feet high and the others averaging 
thirteen and one-half in the clear, while in addition to every conceivable device for the facilitation of business 
special efforts have been made for conserving the comfort and health of the employees." 13 In 1907 Jenny, 
Mundie, & Jensen, the predecessor firm to Mundie & Jensen, constructed a 10-story fireproof factory for 
Wickwire & Company, a major clothing manufacturer, at the corner northeast corner of Franklin and Van Buren 
streets. It was large factory buildings like Hart, Schffher & Marx and Wickwire & Company, constructed in the 
years during which Reiss's company was itself growing, that provided the immediate architectural context and 
precedent for the building that International Tailoring built on Jackson Boulevard. It is notable that Adler & 
Sullivan's Ryerson, Holabird's Hart, Schaffner & Marx factory and Jenny, Mundie & Jensen's Wickwire 
building, and Holabird & Roche's 1903-191 1 McNeil Building at 325 West Jackson have all been replaced by 
modern redevelopment, lending added significance to the International Tailoring Company building. These 
were the buildings that were most closely related in form and use to the International Tailoring Company 
building. They provided the historic and architectural context for the building. They have all been demolished. 
Moreover, there are no surviving clothing manufacturing buildings with the distinctive rooftop tower that 
prominently distinguished the design of the International Tailoring Company from other clothing factories at 
this time. 

Jacob Reiss's tremendous success in operating the International Tailoring Company led him to relocate 
his family in 1902 to New York City. The family took up residence in an apartment on Manhattan's Riverside 
Drive while Reiss expanded his company's factory production to New York's garment district. Reiss and his 
family were living in New York on March 25, 1911 when a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory at the corner 
of Manhattan's Greene Street and Washington Place took the lives of 146 workers, including many women and 
girls who worked 60 to 72 hours per week for the company. The tragedy sparked outrage at the unhealthy and 
unsafe working conditions of clothing workers as unions began to win public support for their organizing efforts 
and demands for better working conditions. An estimated 80,000 people marched for hours up Fifth Avenue to 
attend the funeral of the victims. 14 In New York and around the country, reformers and public officials focused 
new attention on industrial safety. Sweatshops and the tragedy of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire provided 
something of the social and labor context for the construction of the International Tailoring Company building 
in Chicago. 



NFS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 



Section number ji_ Page jj 



Mundie & Jensen and the Architecture of Light 

Where sweatshops were portrayed as dirty, cramped, dark, and unsafe, the modem clothing factory 
exemplified by Mundie & Jensen's design for the International Tailoring Company plant was clean, spacious, 
brightly illuminated by natural light, and constructed with an eye to worker comfort and safety. The buff 
colored face brick of the main elevations, the white terra cotta, and the building's dominant vertical lines all 
expressed the light, airy, and sanitary interior. The large exterior light court and unusually high ceiling also 
represented a commitment to well-illuminated interiors. When the Chicago Tribune published notice of the 
building plans, it alluded to its modern form and pointed to its high ceiling: "What is claimed to be the 'last 
word' in buildings for a business that combines mail order with manufacturing features is the new International 
Tailoring company at Jackson boulevard and Peoria street." 15 The building also incorporated two exterior fire 
escapes, an interior stair, and three elevators, reflecting the need to insure workers' safety in a fire emergency. 
A 15,000-gallon tank providing water for the building's sprinkler system also pointed to the importance of fire 
safety in the design. The abundant provision of toilets for employees on every floor also addressed the comfort 
and cleanliness of the workplace. Toilet facilities in the sweatshops often consisted of outhouses in the 
backyard. The clock tower on top of the building provided a civic amenity to Chicagoans in the vicinity of the 
building. It may well have served as a reminder of the strict work regimen demanded of employees in the 
building. With hundred of employees contributing their small piece of the work product, factory operators 
demanded discipline and order, including strict obedience to the established hours of entering and leaving and 
working in the factory. The clock captured something of this new time discipline demanded of the workers in 
the building. 

In the discourse about sweatshops reformers often spoke with frustration about the elusiveness of the 
sweatshop operators. When factory inspectors closed down a sweatshop, it often seemed to simply reappear in 
another tenement apartment or basement. The International Tailoring Company building, along with other 
modern clothing factories, seemed to announce the owners' commitment to stay put. This was part of the 
reformers' calculation — a huge investment in the physical plant would hopefully make company owners more 
agreeable to establishing harmonious relations with worker associations. The corners of the International 
Tailoring Company building's main elevations, as well as its roof tower, carried heraldic crests with the "JTC" 
monogram. The design seemed to suggest deep roots in the place as well as a willingness to be identified with 
the location — these were not sweatshop operators ready to disappear only to reappear elsewhere. Operations 
would be carried out in the bright light of day. The company also seemed to see some commercial value in 
being identified with an architecturally handsome building. Well into the 1920s, advertisements for the 
company prominently featured images of the building. One 1920s advertisement showed a cartoon of the 
United States with the New York and Chicago buildings of the company looming over their landscapes with a 
radio beacon connecting the buildings, calling attention to the "new spring line." Other radio messages written 
in the air above the country, broadcast from the New York and Chicago buildings declared, "All Wool," "Full 
Satisfaction Assured," "Choicest Patterns," "Models and Fabrics to Fit Every Taste," "Superb Quality," "A $25 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

,-y . „ Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _°_ Page I °~ 



Selection of Merit." All these messages were happily juxtaposed with the buildings that seemed to represent 
equally quality, integrity, and character. 

Chicago's Factory Beautiful Movement 

The size and scale of the International Tailoring Company building helps establish its criterion C 
significance as embodying the characteristics of a type and period of construction — the rise of the modern 
Chicago clothing factory building. For the purposes of achieving a proper scale of factory production, for 
insuring natural light and worker safety, the design of the building did not need to include any of its exterior 
architectural embellishment, any of its terra cotta, face brick, monogram crests, monumental entrances, or, 
perhaps most notably, its extraordinary clock tower enclosing the water sprinkler tank. Fire suppression would 
have worked just as well if the tank had stood unadorned, without the carefully designed and costly tower. 
Water tanks on buildings throughout Chicago stood on the tops of roofs in their plain unadorned and utilitarian 
form. In the International Tailoring building, development of a new architectural typology intersected with a 
broader movement for city beautification. 

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Chicago's business and civic leaders promoted the City 
Beautiful Movement, insisting that the city should pursue beauty, culture, and refinement with the same vitality 
that it had pursued economic and urban development. The fundamental question before the city was whether 
Chicago's economic and industrial prosperity and its dominance in urban development would become ends in 
themselves or whether they could be turned towards the loftier goal of a cultivated city worthy of its size and 
greatness. The justification of lives and a city narrowly devoted to materialistic pursuits seemed bound up in 
the ability of people to channel private wealth into public culture and charitable deeds. The 1909 Commercial 
Club of Chicago, with its vision of a City Beautiful of expansive parks and boulevards, monumental civic and 
cultural centers, and a skyline tamed into beaux-arts order and refinement, represented one significant venue for 
addressing these issues. At the same time, a small group of architects who worked at the center of Chicago's 
seemingly utilitarian industrial landscape began to insist that factories, too, could contribute to the City 
Beautiful. They worked to convince their clients and their professional colleagues that industrialists should not 
simply reap their profits, then go and support beauty and culture in other parts of the city. Instead, these 
architects argued, industrialists should be willing to beautify the factory buildings that produced their wealth, 
and in doing so elevate and enrich the lives of their workers, city residents, and visitors alike. 

The Chicago proponents of the City Beautiful often struggled to fashion an urban landscape that 
demonstrated that the city's seemingly boundless pursuit of mammon could be turned to the refined matters of 
beauty and culture. The industrial landscape itself offered a particularly promising field to express a 
commitment to more refined pursuits. Moreover, the rapid expansion of Chicago's industrial landscape also 
meant that many factories were moving away from the central city into more suburban neighborhoods. 
Embellished and architecturally distinguished buildings had the power to suggest through design that factories 
would not necessarily diminish the value of neighboring property. In 1915, the Architectural Record reviewed 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 



Section number _o_ Page _!_£_ 



the buildings of one of the architects most directly associated with the aesthetic reform of industrial 
architecture, George C. Nimmons. Wrote the Record : "A number of interesting attempts have been made in the 
last few years to construct buildings which although their purposes required a high degree of economy, might, 
nevertheless, present a dignified and pleasing appearance. The Chicago architects particularly distinguished 
themselves in this field. The great warehouses and factories of which they have been the authors include some 
of the more notable contributions to architectural design in America." 16 In numerous designs over the previous 
decade, Nimmons had explored the use of varied colors in brick and terra cotta and employed historicist motifs 
to enliven and refine Chicago's industrial architecture. 

Tanks. Towers, and Roofscapes 

In surveying Nimmons's work, Architectural Record pointed out the way in which Nimmons and other 
Chicago architects had seized on the requirement of a rooftop water tank as a point of departure for the 
architectural embellishment of the industrial landscape. On Nimmons's buildings, a tower "forms the 
dominating feature of the facade. The tower in each case, has a good reason for its existence, as it encloses the 
water tank of the sprinkler system usually required now by the fire insurance underwriters for a low insurance 
rate. The old method of erecting these tanks exposed on the roof was unsightly and unattractive. . . . The 
insurance requirements for water supply of an industrial plant, taking into account the size of the tank and its 
height above the roof, are nearly always such as to make it possible to design a well proportioned tower. 
Inasmuch as the expense involved in enclosing the sprinkler tank is not materially greater than the cost of 
supports and foundations for an exposed tank, it has often been possible to secure the owner's consent to make a 
water tower the principal feature of the main facade and utilize the base of such a tower for the main entrance. 
The result is that the sky-line of the buildings is much improved, and an interesting feature added to a design 
which might otherwise be a box-like and devoid of any particular attraction." 17 As if to further underscore the 
relationship between employee welfare and beauty, the Architectural Record pointed out that Nimmons's 1912 
design for the C. P. Kimball Company automobile factory building at 3906-3936 South Michigan Avenue 
added a clock and a set of chimes in the place of the standard steam whistle to inform employees of the opening 
and the closing hours at the plant. The form and function of the Gothic tower on the Kimball hovered 
ambiguously between that of a factory and a cathedral. 

George C. Nimmon's 1912 design for the Kimball Company's clock and water tower would have 
provided an immediate and notable precedent for Mundie & Jensen's 1915 design of the International Tailoring 
Company building. Nimmons later featured the Kimball design in his September, 1916 article in The 
Brickbuilder magazine titled, "Does it Pay to Improve Manufacturing and Industrial Buildings Architecturally?" 
For the article* Nimmons provided a "utilitarian" version of the Kimball design, stripping away all of the terra 
cotta details and architectural ornament and removing the tower, leaving a massive water tank supported a steel 
framework. He had his builder provide an estimate for the utilitarian design and discovered that it lowered the 
cost of the $326,000 Kimball factory by only $14, 957. When one took into consideration the benefits to the 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

o- (j Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _o_ Page H 



employees and the public as well as the advertising value of handsome industrial buildings, Nimmons answered 
the rhetorical question presented in his Brickbuilder title with a resounding "yes" — it paid to improve industrial 
design and to participate in the broader City Beautiful Movement. 18 Mundie & Jensen and their client Jacob L. 
Reiss had apparently arrived at the same conclusions in their design for the International Tailoring Company 
building. 

Mundie & Jensen's design for the International Tailoring Company's enclosed water tank stood close to 
the historical mid-point of the debates and design experiments involving embellished Chicago industrial plants 
in general and enclosed water towers in particular. The design experiments originated in the early years of the 
twentieth century continued through the 1920s when the depression drastically curtailed factory construction. 
Several Chicago buildings can be cited as providing the context for the International Tailoring Company design. 
Richard E. Schmidt's and Hugh M. G. Garden's 1902 design for the Schoenhofen Brewery at 18 th Street and 
Canalport Avenue included an enclosed water tower. For his part, Schmidt later credited Louis Sullivan's 1902 
design for the Carson, Pirie, Scott department store with including the first enclosed water tower in the city. " 
Nimmons & Fellows's 1905-1906 design for Sears, Roebuck & Company's massive warehouse and distribution 
center at 900-930 South Homan Avenue included a fifty foot square, two hundred and forty foot high tower that 
enclosed a 200,000 gallon water tank. Nimmons & Fellows also included an attached water tower in their 1909 
design for Chicago's Liquid Carbonic Company plant, located at 3100 South Kedzie Avenue. With his design 
for the Reid, Murdoch & Company warehouse on the Chicago River just east of La Salle Street, George E. 
Nimmons brought his industrial architecture into direct contact with Chicago's City Beautiful Movement. He 
used the design, with it prominent clock and water tower, to fulfill the vision of the Burnham Plan to beautify 
the riverfront, providing a pedestrian promenade between the building and the river's edge. Following the lead 
of Nimmons's work in industrial design, the owners and designers of the Central Manufacturing District 
adopted a policy that banned unadorned rooftop tanks for all buildings in their planned industrial district. S. 
Scott Joy served as the primary architect for the district in its early years, completing such buildings as the 
Pullman Couch Company at 3739-3723 South Ashland Avenue in 1915 and the National Carbon Building at 
371 1-3725 South Ashland Avenue in 1916. An impressive freestanding water tower, given the design of an 
Italian campanile, dominated the Pershing Road frontage of a major expansion of the Central Manufacturing 
District completed in 1917. Architect Alfred S. Alschuler also designed several towered industrial plants and 
warehouses: the 1906-191 1 towered clothing plant of A. Stein & Company at Congress Street and Racine 
Avenue; the 1912 Thompson Commissary located on 107 W. Kinzie Street, with its enclosed tower, as well as, 
designs for the Victor Manufacturing Company and the ILG Electric Ventilating Company featured in the pages 
of the Chicago Tribune under the headline, "Towers Add Dignity and Beauty to Chicago Plants." 20 In 1926 the 
Tribune claimed that F. E. Davidson, former president of the Illinois Society of Architects, was a "pioneer in 
hiding tanks in towers" for his 1910 design for Progress Company located at the comer of Berteau and 
Ravenswood. 

Even as examples of the architectural treatment of water towers proliferated in Chicago's industrial 
landscape, critics continued to raise strenuous objections to the ongoing addition of unadorned water towers to 



NPS Form 1 0-900-a OMB No. 1 024-00 1 8 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 



Section number _%_ Page lo 



rooftops. The Chicago Tribune vigorously editorialized against the visual blight of water tanks on many 
occasions during the 1920s. A 1929 article declared, "We are respectfully submitting herewith a group of likely 
candidates for membership in the Chicago Association of Atrocities — a notorious element in our town which 
has brought forth a number of broadsides from this paper's staff of editorial writers. The group for which 
membership is requested comprises roof water tarda — the Adam and Eve variety — that is, tanks exposed to the 
public view without the slightest attempt at concealment or adornment." 21 In an attempt to focus the attention 
of architects on this problem, Leon E. Stanhope, president of the Illinois Society of Architects, proposed a new 
annual award for the best skyline and roof view of buildings erected during the year. He hoped that such a prize 
would have a ripple effect on other design awards, making it unthinkable to judge a building solely for its 
elevation, while ignoring "a roof cluttered up with penthouses, tanks, and stacks." 22 In 1930, another observer 
hoped that a new competition would start for a "tank beautiful," that would replace "the thousands of sky 
searing atrocities perched on commercial and office buildings in Chicago." Although architects such as 
Sullivan, Schmidt, Nimmons, Davidson, and Alschuler had shown the way, obviously not enough designers and 
their clients had followed. The "tank beautiful" — the roof and factory beautiful crusades of the early twentieth 
century— provide a rich context for understanding the form and shape that Mundie & Jensen gave to their design 
for the International Tailoring Company building. The demolition of Alschuler' s A. Stein & Company building 
leaves the International Tailoring Company as Chicago's most notable clothing manufacturing building to 
directly participate in the embellished "tank beautiful" part of the factory beautiful movement. 

The Commonness of Side Elevations 

There is some irony in the fact that, while creatively joining others in tackling the aesthetic challenge of 
the rooftop water tank, Mundie & Jensen left unresolved an equally intractable aesthetic problem in 
contemporary architectural and urban design. Like nearly all of their contemporaries, Mundie & Jensen turned 
a blind eye to fact that the east elevation of their factory was built almost entirely of common brick with little 
attention paid to architectural composition. That elevation would nevertheless remain visible to many people in 
the neighborhood for generations to come. The common brick east elevation was initially constructed with a 
sense of optimism that later buildings would be built to obscure the view of the east elevation from the public 
way. Since those optimistic visions never came to pass, the Tailoring building remained the tallest building on 
the block. The common brick east elevations hovered on the neighborhood skyline for many see as a common 
part of their experience of the building. 

The International Tailoring Company in Labor History 

In 1910, Chicago's garment industry consisted of many small shops and a smaller number of large firms, 
many of which continued to give contract work to the city's countless sweatshops. One major firm — Hart, 
Schaffner and Marx — moved away from small shop contracting when it opened a substantial inside 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

J , Cook County, Illinois 

Section number J^_ Page ' 



manufactory that employed over 8,000 workers. Over the next few years, several of the large firms that made 
up the Chicago Wholesale Clothiers Association followed this precedent. It was in the context of this 
development that the International Tailoring Company decided to build its new factory at West Jackson 
Boulevard and South Peoria Street in 1915. With its new manufactory, spacious enough to employ hundreds of 
garment workers at a single site, the International Tailoring Company thus played a part in a general trend in the 
clothing industry. Industrial leaders hoped to increase efficiency, managerial control, and profits by 
concentrating work at a central site, as well as ease pressure from the labor movement and social reformers who 
denounced sweatshop labor. Yet the change also eased the way for unions to organize the industry having easy 
access to large numbers of workers in single workplaces. 24 

The International Tailoring Company built its new factory building in the very year that the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America initiated an ambitious effort to organize workers throughout the 
national industry. As a major center of non-union employers, Chicago saw mounting conflict. In September 
1915, nearly 5,000 clothing workers met together in mass meeting to demand union recognition, a 48-hour work 
week, and the general adoption of arbitration machinery that would replace the violent cycle of strikes, 
blacklisting, and industrial disruption in the city. When employers refused, clothing workers struck across 
much of Chicago. Newspapers of 1915 urged city officials to intervene to bring a peaceful resolution, and a 
committee of leading businessmen and social workers, headed by Jane Addams, appealed to the mayor to 
arbitrate. Addams also joined other leading Chicago women to raise funds up to $ 10,000 per week in order to 
support the strikers. The strike ended with only limited concessions on the part of employers, but the union 
continued organizing, and within a few years it could claim substantial victory. World War I may have 
hastened union success, for the Federal War Labor Board endorsed basic principles of collective bargaining 
among firms who sought contracts for producing uniforms during the war. In 1919, the Chicago's Hart, 
Schaffher, and Marx agreed to a 44 -hour work week, bringing pressure on its non-union competitors. By the 
end of that year, the large firms associated in the Chicago Wholesale Clothiers Association (including 
International Tailoring) agreed to recognize the Amalgamated Clothing Workers and the industry was wholly 
organized. Said the union, "At last our wildest dreams are brought to a realization — Chicago 100 per cent. 
Amalgamated." 25 Sidney Hillman led the Amalgamated at this time. Hillman was a former Hart, Schaffher & 
Marx employee who was the rank in file leader of the major 1910 strike against Hart, Schaffher & Marx, 

International Tailoring Company stood out among the industry leaders that would later seek to roll back 
union gains. In fact, in 1925, International Tailoring Company became a central player in a conflict that, 
viewed at the close of the decade, appeared as "probably the most bitterly fought battle that has ever taken place 
in the clothing industry between a labor union and an individual employer." 26 

In 1925, the Company did approximately two million dollars of business, with some 1300 workers 
located in Chicago and New York, some of them employed by subsidiaries. The strike began in Chicago, where 
roughly 800 workers walked out of International Tailoring and its subsidiary J. L. Taylor Company on June 26, 
1925. The immediate issue was not the usual one of wages, quality of working environment, or hours. Instead, 



NPS Form 1 0-900-a OMB No. 1 024-00 1 8 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

_- Cook County, Illinois 

Section number Jo. Page _fZ_ 

the dispute began when International Tailoring refused to renew its biennial agreement to honor arbitration 
committees and machinery, which had stabilized production and labor relations since 1920. The company 
sought to return to an open shop practice, hiring non-union workers, and raising the specter of a return to the 
industry's earlier regime of low wages, long hours, and frequent labor disruption due to strikes. The 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers accordingly resisted, and soon employees at the New York branch of 
International Tailoring also walked out. 27 

In both New York and Chicago International Tailoring Company responded to the strike by seeking 
court injunctions to end the picketing of factories by striking workers. Court injunctions against picketing had 
been a time-honored tactic used by employers to weaken union protests, subject strikers and their leaders to 
arrest and, in the view of unions, to keep striking employees from exercising their constitutional rights to 
freedom of speech and freedom of assembly. In New York Jacob L. Reiss claimed that Hillman and the 
Amalgamated represented "a radical departure in unionism by revolutionary elements among the clothing 
workers," and the International Tailoring Company won a major court victory over the union. In July, 1925 the 
court issued a temporary restraining order against the union and on August 12 th the court ruled in International 
Tailoring Company v. Hillman that due to striker "intimidation" of non-striking workers it felt compelled to ban 
pickets from assembling anywhere within ten blocks of the International Tailoring Company building. This 
ruling not only moved the union strikers away from the building but also completely out of the garment 
district. 28 

In Chicago the courts ruled differently and effectively strengthened the hand of the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers. The different outcome turned in no small part on the recent passage of a pro-labor anti- 
injunction law by the Illinois legislature. Over the decade prior to the 1925 strike anti-injunction laws had 
consistently failed in the Illinois legislature. In February 1917 a petition with hundreds of names, including that 
of former governor Edward Dunne and several University of Chicago professors implored the legislature to pass 
a law forbidding courts from enjoining unions from picketing. The petition was circulated after dozens of 
garment workers were arrested for "loitering," "disorderly conduct," and "picketing" in the garment district 
after a court order prohibited picketing. 29 In 1919 anti-injunction bills also failed in the legislature. 30 On April 
28, 1925 a bill to prohibit judges from issuing injunctions in labor disputes lost in the Illinois house by three 
votes. 31 Although there is no clear link between the International Tailoring Company's May, 1925 
announcement that it would not renew its biennial arbitration agreement with the Amalgamated union and the 
reintroduction of the anti-injunction bill in the Illinois house on June 1 1, 1925, the events did unfold within the 
same time frame. The bill had the strong backing of Republican Governor Lennington Small and many 
Democratic members of the legislature. Upon the new consideration the bill passed by a single vote. 32 
Governor Small signed it into law on June 20, 1925. 33 On August 3, 1925 Chicago Judge Hugo Pam rejected 
the effort of the International Tailoring Company to get an injunction against the picketing of its building at 
Jackson and Peoria by its striking employees. Judge Pam explicitly pointed to legislature's recent action in 
arguing that he had "no jurisdiction to enjoin such picketing." 34 Strikers were permitted to peaceful picket the 
International Tailoring Company building, the culmination of years and years of political effort on the part of 
the union and progressive reformers. This stood in sharp contrast to the situation in New York where the judge 



NFS Form 1 0-900-a OMB No. 1 024-00 1 8 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

^ ,y Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _2_ Page i_°_ 

created a legal furor and engendered bitter violence by denying union members the right to picket around the 
International Tailoring Company building. 35 

In 1925 strikers at the International Tailoring Company building underscored a shift the course of local 
labor history. According to a Union spokesman, "In the past, many strikes have been broken through the 
issuance of injunctions against picketing and the subsequent arrest of violators who then had no opportunity of 
jury trial." 36 The new anti-injunction law that protected workers' rights to picket was immediately pressed into 
use in the strike at the International Tailoring Company. The Tribune editorialized in favor of the law: "In the 
American industrial struggle there have been abuses of violence and there have been abuses of court orders. 
The one grew into the other. This act . . . protects a peaceable citizen in his rights. He may quit work in concert 
with other workers and he may try to get others to quit work. The strikers may not be restrained by injunction 
from assembling on the streets. That does not mean that the police must allow them to congregate. They are 
not granted any rights to obstruct public places, annoy other persons or create disorders." 37 International 
Tailoring Company's anti-union initiatives provoked the strike of 1925 and the workers seized on the new law 
protecting workers' right to try to "persuade or advise" other garment workers to join the strike. 38 Picketing at 
the building on West Jackson Boulevard and South Peoria Street was thus a significant event in the broader 
effort to secure working Americans' right to organize and to exercise their freedom of speech and assembly. On 
November 6, 1925, after a strike lasting nineteen weeks, International Tailoring Company settled its dispute 
with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. The strike had cost the company an estimated $2 million 
dollars and ended in a victory for the Amalgamated, staking some new ground in the relationship between 
workers and employers. 

Given the harshness of the rhetoric and the strategies employed in the 1925 strike, few could have 
predicted that in 1939 Sidney Hillman would attend a banquet at the Biltmore Hotel in New York with 
Raymond Reiss, the president of International Tailoring and the son of its founder, to celebrate what Hillman 
called, "fifteen years of real cooperation, real confidence, which make it possible to face each other as real 
friends and partners in an enterprise." Another guest hailed the "peaceful and just collaboration" between 
"capital and labor" as an object lesson of great import to the nation. 39 The International Tailoring Company 
building had provided something of a stage for the playing out of this drama of contesting and reconciling labor 
relations. The size of the building, the scale of its operations, stood in sharp contrast to the sweatshop origins of 
the clothing business in nineteenth-century Chicago. As Hull House reformers had anticipated the size of the 
workplace, represented by the International Tailoring Company building, made it much easier for unions to 
organize garment workers. These workers had literally emerged from the dark corners of Chicago's economy 
and joined unions in their new clothing factory workplaces. The reforms that the building captured in the way 
of better light and air and sanitation for workers constituted great steps forward. However, those improvements 
did not end the struggle for economic power and control in the garment industry. The right of workers to strike 
and picket, affirmed by the anti-injunction law and the court ruling supporting the Amalgamated pickets at the 
International Tailoring Company, helped in the balancing of the power between "capital and labor." 
Interestingly a few years after the victory in the strike against International Tailoring Company the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers built a monumental union headquarters, health center, and social hall at the 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

, |C , Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _ffe_ Page II 

northeast corner of Ashland Avenue and Van Buren Street. The five-story limestone building designed by 
Henry Dubin had classical piers and a sculpted American bald eagle rising over the main cornice. A tall 
embellished tower, enclosing the building's water tank, rose above the building. The union hall design 
registered something of the victories won by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in their contests with the 
International Tailoring Company at the tower-topped factory located less than a mile to the east. 



Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910. Volume DC Manufacturers. 1909. Reports B 
Y States. (Washington, D.C., 1912): 296-298. 

2 Youngsoo Bae, Labor in Retreat: Class and Community among Men's Clothing Workers of Chicago. 1871-1929. (New York: State 
University of New York Press, 2001), see especially: Chapter 2, "From the Sweatshop to the Factory," pp. 47-83. 

3 Jane Addams, "The Settlement As A Factor in the Labor Movement," in Hull-House Maps and Papers. 
(Boston: Thomas V. Crowell & Co., 1895), 184-185. 

Florence Kelley, "The Sweating-System," in: Hull-House Maps and Papers. (Boston: Thomas V. Crowell & 
Co., 1895), 27-45. 
3 Chicago Tribune. 14 May 1899. 

6 Chicago Tribune . 21 November 1901. 

7 Chicago Tribune. 7 May 1902 

8 Chicago Tribune . 3 May 1903. 
Chicago Tribune . 4 May 1919. 

10 Chicago Tribune . 6 December 1896. 

11 Tenth Census of the United States, Manuscript Census, Population Schedule, 4 th Ward of Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin, Enumeration District 217, page 2. 

12 Quoted in Frank A. Randall, History of the Development of Building Construction in Chicago. (Urbana: 
University of Illinois Press, 1849), 164. 

13 Chicago Tribune. 15 May 1908. 

DebraE. Bernhardt, "Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Site is NHL," crm.cr.nps.gov/arcnive/i7-i/i7-i- 

12.pdf 

15 Chicago Tribune . 7 November 1915. 

16 "Some Industrial Building by George C. Nimmons," Architectural Record. 38 (August 1915): 229. 

17 "Some Industrial Building by George C. Nimmons," Architectural Record. 38 (August 1915): 229-230. 
George C. Nimmons, "Does it Pay to Improve Manufacturing and Industrial Buildings Architecturally?" The 

Brickbuilder. 25 (September 1916): 217-247. 

19 Chicago Tribune . 1 August 1926. 

20 Chicago Tribune. 28 December 1919. 

21 Chicago Tribune. 17 February 1929. 

22 Chicago Tribune. 4 September 1927. 

23 Chicago Tribune. 19 October 1930. 

Overview of the Chicago clothing or garment industry from Youngsoo Bae, Labor in Retreat: Class and 
Community among Men's Clothing Workers of Chicago. 1871-1929. (New York. State University of New 



NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

_ Cook County, Illinois 

Section number _o_ Page ^ 



York Press, 2001); Chicago Joint Board, The Clothing Workers of Chicago. 1910-1922 (Chicago: 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1922); George Soule, Sidney Hillman. Labor Statesman (New 

York: The MacMillan Company, 1939); Steven Fraser, Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of 

American Labor (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993). 

25 For the union's view of organizing and the strike of 1915, Chicago Joint Board, Clothing Workers of 

Chicago , chap. 5, esp. pp. 102-104 on James Addams; p. 1 14 on Hart, Schaffner and Marx; the quotation is 

from pp. 122-123. On World War I, see Soule, Sidney Hillman. chap. 6. 

x P. F. Bnssenden and CO. Swayzee, "The Use of the Labor Injunction in the New York Needle Trades IL" Political Science 

Quarterly, vol. 4 no. 1 (March 1930), pp. 87-111. Quotation on p. 91. 

27 P. F. Brissenden and CO. Swayzee, 'The Use of the Labor Injunction in the New York Needle Trades U," 
Political Science Quarterly, vol. 4 no. 1 (March 1930), pp. 87-111. 

28 Brissenden and Swayze, "Use of the Labor Injunction," pp. 90-101. Report of settlement is in "Settle Strike 
of Workers in Clothes Plant," Chicago Daily Tribune. November 8, 1925. 

29 Chicago Tribune. 28 February 1917. 

30 Chicago Tribune. 10 April 1919. 

31 Chicago Tribune. 29 April 1925. 

32 Chicago Tribune. 1 1 June 1925. 

33 Chicago Tribune. 20 June 1925. 

34 Chicago Tribune. 3 August 1925. 

For context of the contrast see: William E. Forbath, Law and the Shaping of the American Labor Movement 
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991). 
6 Chicago Tribune. 3 August 1925. 

37 Chicago Tribune. 12 June 1925. 

38 Chicago Tribune. 27 May 1925. 

39 New York Times . 10 February 1939. 



3 Chicago Tribune. 18 August 1926, 23 April 1963. 



NFS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 

(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 

CONTINUATION SHEET International Tailoring Company Building 

Cook County, Illinois 
Section number _1_ Page 5-1 



Section 9: Major Bibliographical References 

Bae, Youngsoo. "Clothing and Garment Manufacturing," Encyclopedia of Chicago (Chicago: Newberry 
Library, 2004). 

Bae, Youngsoo. Labor in Retreat: Class and Community among Men's Clothing Workers 
of Chicago. 1871-1929 . (New York: State University of New York Press, 2001). 

Chicago Joint Board, The Clothing Workers of Chicago. 1910-1922 (Chicago: Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America, 1922). 

Hull-House Maps and Papers. (Boston: Thomas V. Crowell & Co., 1895). 

Nimmons, George C. "Does it Pay to Improve Manufacturing and Industrial Buildings Architecturally?" The 
Brickbuilder. 25 (September 1916): 217-247. 

"Some Industrial Building by George C. Nimmons," Architectural Record. 38 (August 1915): 229. 

Soule, George. Sidney Hillman. Labor Statesman (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1939). 



NPS F«m 1&-900-* OMB 4ppwj/ No, IOZ«-0Cta 



United States Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 

National Register of Historic Places 
Continuation Sheet 

Section number ■'»- Page 2-2- 



International Tailoring Company Building 
Cook County, Illinois 



Section 10: Geographical Data 

Verbal Boundary Description 

North l A of Lots 1 1-16 in Duncan's Addition to Chicago, a subdivision 
OftheE HoftheNE %of Section 17-39-14 

Boundary Justification 

This is the full extent of the land historically associated with the building. 



NPS Form 10-900-a 
OMB No. 1024-0018 
(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 
CONTINUATION SHEET 



Section Page 23 



International Tailoring Company Building 
Cook County, Illinois 




Jackson Boulevard 



NPS Form 10-900-a 
OMB No. 1024-0018 
(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 
CONTINUATION SHEET 



Section 



Page 24 



International Tailoring Company Building 
Cook County, Illinois 




Peoria 
Street 



If 



Jackson Boulevard 



NPS Form 10-900-a 
(8-86) 

United States Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 
CONTINUATION SHEET 

Photograph list 



OMBNo. 1024-0018 



International Tailoring Building 
Cook County, Illinois 



Photographic Documentation - Photograph list 

ILCook Countylnternational Tailoring Building (ITB) 

1 . International Tailoring Building (ITB) 

2. Cook County, Illinois 

3. Ted Hild and Phil Krone 

4. December, 2007 

ILCook CountylTBOl West elevation 

ILCook County_ITB02 Front (north) facade along Jackson 

ILCook County_ITB03 View from south along Peoria Street 

ILCook CountyITB04 North (on left) and west facades from NW 

ILCook County_ITB05 West (Peoria Street) facade from southwest 

ILCook County_ITB06 West (Peoria Street) facade from west 

IL Cook County_ITB07 South facade of addition from south 

IL Cook County_ITB08 Loading dock on south end from SW 

ILCook County_ITB09 Light court on east facade 

ILCook CountylTBlO Jackson Blvd entry from north 

ILCook CountylTB 1 1 Jackson Blvd elevator lobby 1 

ILCook County_ITB12 Jackson Blvd elevator lobby 2 

IL Cook County_ITB13 Second floor window along Jackson Blvd 

ILCook County_ITB14 Peoria Street (west) entry 

ILCook County ITB 15 Bas-relief figure at Peoria Street entry 

IL Cook CountyJTB16 Stair in Peoria Street lobby 

IL Cook County ITB 17 Peoria Street elevator lobby 

ILCook CountyJTB18 Clock face 

ILCook County_lTB19 Tower interior 

ILCook County_ITB20 Historic ca. 1920 view 




Peoria 
Street 



XT 



Jackson Boulevard 




Jackson Boulevard 




InternationalTailoringCo _Aerial Site Plan.tiff 



of Yerba Buena Island, Yerba Buena Island, 08000084, LISTED, 2/26/08 

CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO COUNTY, 

Senior Officers Quarters Historic District, Yerba Buena Island, Whiting Way at Northgate Rd., 

North shore of Yerba Buena Island, Yerba Buena Island, 08000085, LISTED, 2/26/08 

COLORADO, EL PASO COUNTY, 

Drennan School, 

20500 Drennan Rd., 

Colorado Springs vicinity, 08*000290, 

LISTED, 4/16/08 

(Rural School Buildings in Colorado MPS) 

COLORADO, LARIMER COUNTY, 

Greeley, Salt Lake and Pacific Railroad-Stout Branch, Approx. 1/2 mi. S. of jet. US 287 & Co.Rd. 

28, Laporte vicinity, 08000291, LISTED, 4/16/08 (Railroads in Colorado, 1858-1948 MPS) 

GEORGIA, FRANKLIN COUNTY, 
Ayers-Little Boarding House, 
1 2 1 Athens St., 
Carnesville, 08000292, 
LISTED, 4/16/08 

GEORGIA, PICKENS COUNTY, 
Griffeth-Pendley House, 
2 1 98 Cove Rd., 
Jasper vicinity, 08000293, 
LISTED, 4/16/08 

ILLINOIS, COOK COUNTY, 

International Tailoring Company Building, 

847 W. Jackson Blvd., 

Chicago, 07001474, 

LISTED, 4/18/08 

ILLINOIS, EDGAR COUNTY, 
Moss, Henry Clay, House, 
414 N. Main St., 
Paris, 08000295, 
LISTED, 4/16/08 

KANSAS, BARTON COUNTY, 
Beaver Creek Native Stone Bridge, 
NE. 50 Ave. S. & NE 230 Rd, 
Beaver vicinity, 08000296, 
LISTED, 4/16/08 
(Masonry Arch Bridges of Kansas TR) 

KANSAS, BARTON COUNTY, 
Bridge #2 18-Off System Bridge, 
NE. 60 Ave. S. & NE. 220 Rd.,